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Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin , produced by the bacterium '' toxinClostridium botulinum ''. The disease begins with weakness, trouble seeing, feeling tired , and trouble speaking. This may then be followed by weakness of the arms, chest muscles, and legs. The disease does not usually affect feeling tiredconsciousness or cause a fever.Botulism can be spread several different ways. The feeling tiredconsciousnessbacterial spores which cause it, are common... read more

Avian botulism

Avian Botulism is a strain of botulism that affects wild and captive bird populations, most notably waterfowl. This is a paralytic disease brought on by the Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNt) of the bacterium ''Clostridium botulinum''. ''C. botulinum'' can fall into one of 7 different types which are strains A through G. Type C BoNt is most frequently associated with waterfowl mortality. The Type E strain is also commonly associated with avian outbreaks and is frequently found in fish species which is... read more

Heptavalent botulism antitoxin

The ''Heptavalent Botulism AntiToxin'' — ''HBAT'', made by Cangene Corporation — is a licensed, commercially available botulism anti-toxin that effectively neutralizes all seven known botulinum nerve toxin serotypes (types A, B, C, D, E, F and G). It is indicated for sporadic cases of life-threatening botulism and is also stockpiled for the eventuality of botulinum nerve toxins being used in a future bioterrorist attack.''HBAT'' was approved in 2010 by the CDC for the indication of treating... read more

1971 Bon Vivant botulism case

The 1971 Bon Vivant botulism case was one of the few cases of foodborne botulism to occur from commercial food processing.==History==On July 2, 1971, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a public warning after learning that a Westchester County, New York man had died and his wife had become seriously ill from botulism after partly eating a can of Bon Vivant vichyssoise soup. The company began a recall of the 6,444 cans of vichyssoise soup made in the same batch as the can known to... read more

Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation task force/RTT/Botulism

Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal paralytic illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacteria ''Clostridium botulinum''. The disease begins with weakness, trouble seeing, feeling tired, and trouble speaking. This may then be followed by weakness of the arms, chest muscles, and legs. The disease does not usually affect consciousness or cause a fever.Botulism can occur in a few different ways. The bacterial spores that cause it are common in both soil and water. They produce botulinum toxin... read more

Émile van Ermengem

Émile Pierre-Marie van Ermengem (1851–1932, or 1851–1922 according to some sources) was a Belgian bacteriologist who, in 1895, isolated ''Clostridium botulinum'', the bacterium that causes botulism, from a piece of ham that had poisoned thirty four people.He worked at the University of Ghent. His sons were the writer Franz Hellens and the art critic François Maret. read more

Clostridium argentinense

''Clostridium argentinense'' is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. Some bacilli now identified as ''Cl. argentinense'' were previously classified as either ''Cl. subterminale'', ''Cl. hastiforme'', or ''Cl. botulinum'' toxin group G, respectively.Like ''Cl. botulinum'', ''Cl. argentinense'' produces botulin, a neurotoxin that causes botulism in susceptible mammals. Among this proteolytic species' products are acetic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid, and hydrogen sulfide.... read more

Clostridium baratii

''Clostridium baratii'' is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. It is a rare cause of infant botulism, in which newborns or infants lose their muscle tone, and develop trouble feeding due to a difficulty in breathing, which can be fatal. Newborns can recover spontaneously or as in two known cases improve with injected botulism antitoxin. , the environmental source of this bacterium is unknown, despite extensive investigations when cases have occurred. ==Diagnosis==The diagnosis must be... read more

Intestinal infectious diseases

Intestinal infectious diseases include a large number of infections of the bowels including: cholera, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, other types of salmonella infections, shigellosis, botulism, gastroenteritis, and amoebiasis among others.Typhoid and paratyphoid resulted in 221,000 deaths in 2013 down from 259,000 deaths in 1990. Other diseases which result in diarrhea caused another 1.3 million additional deaths in 2013 down from 2.6 million deaths in 1990. read more

Pakowki Lake

Pakowki Lake is an endorheic lake in Alberta, Canada located south of Etzikom, Alberta and not far north is the former town site of Pakowki which may have received its name from the lake.It is located in the prairies of southern Alberta, at an elevation of , in the County of Forty Mile No. 8. It is fed by a number of coulees and creeks, such as Etzikom Coulee, Irrigation Creek, Erickson Coulee, Ketchum Creek, Canal Creek, Bond Coulee and Bryant Coulee, and has no outflow. Reaching a maximum extent... read more

Ida A. Bengtson

Ida Albertina Bengtson (1881 – 1952) was an American bacteriologist. ==Life==She was born in Nebraska in 1881 as the daughter of Swedish immigrants, and earned her AB degree from the University of Nebraska in 1903. She entered the University of Chicago to study bacteriology in 1911, and earned her Masters degree in 1913 and her PhD in 1919, both from the University of Chicago. While studying, she also worked as a bacteriologist in the Chicago Department of Health in 1915, and in 1916 she... read more

Frédéric Pagès

Frédéric Pagès (; born 1950) is a French journalist noted for his work with the satirical weekly, ''Le Canard enchaîné''.Pagès studied philosophy at University and worked as a high school teacher until 1985.At ''Le Canard enchaîné'', his humorous columns included ''Le Journal de Xavière T'', a spoof diary of Xavière Tiberi, the wife of Jean Tiberi, then mayor of Paris, and, from December 2007, ''Le Journal de Carla B'', a spoof diary of Carla Bruni, wife of President Nicolas Sarkozy.The... read more

Clostridium botulinum

''Clostridium botulinum'' is a Gram-positive , rod-shaped, anaerobic , spore-forming, motile anaerobicbacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum . The botulinum toxin can cause a severe flaccid paralytic disease in humans and other animals and is the most potent toxin known to mankind, natural or synthetic, with a lethal dose of 1.3–2.1 ng/kg in humans.(2010). Chapter 29. Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroides, and Other Anaerobes. In Ryan K.J., Ray C (Eds),... read more


Kiviak or kiviaq is a traditional wintertime Inuit food from Greenland that is made of little auks preserved in the hollowed-out body of a seal.About 500 auks are packed into the seal skin intact, including beaks, feet and feathers. As much air as possible is removed from the seal skin before it is sewn up and sealed with seal fat, which repels flies. A large rock is then placed on top to keep the air content low. Over the course of seven months, the birds ferment, and are then eaten during the... read more

Loyd Grossman sauces

Loyd Grossman Food is a brand of cooking sauces established in 1995 manufactured by Premier Foods in association with TV personality and food critic Loyd Grossman. Premier Foods, which also manufactures Sharwood's, was the leading UK cooking sauces company in terms of value share.The company produces Italian, Indian, Thai and Chilli Cooking Sauces and introduced a For One range in 2010, which is sold in individual pouches containing enough sauce for one helping.In 2011 Premier Foods issued a product... read more


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